Anthropology 288: Childhood
Section AB (MW), Fall 2008

Dr. Sascha L. Goluboff
Office Hours: MWF: B and C Hour

You can find me at goluboffs@wlu.edu and in Newcomb Hall, 36E (Third Floor) (phone: 458-8807)
This syllabus can be accessed at http://home.wlu.edu/~goluboffs

Course Description
This course will explore the experience of childhood cross culturally. It will investigate how different societies conceptualize children, and our readings will progress through representations of the lifecycle. We will start with the topic of conceptions, and then we will move through issues pertaining to the fetus, infants, children, and adolescents. We will discuss socialization, discipline, emotion, education, gender, and sexuality. Special attention will be given to the effects of war, poverty, social inequality, and disease on children and youth.

Texts to Buy at the Book Store
1. Judy DeLoache and Alma Gottlieb (2002), A World of Babies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2. Meredith Small (2002), Kids: How Biology and Culture Shape the Way We Raise Young Children. Anchor Press.
3. Course pack

Class Organization
This class will be run as a seminar, organized around thematic discussions of the day's readings. The professor's role is to guide class sessions and help you to understand the major points and theoretical issues. Your participation is crucial. You must have all the readings done on time. You will be responsible  for leading discussion at least once about a certain reading, and when it is not your turn, you will be expected to raise important and insightful issues. To help you accomplish these objectives, each discussion leader will bring in at least 3 questions about your piece to be discussed, and all the other students will bring in one question about any of the day's assignments. Please bring two copies -- one for you, and one for the professor to collect at the beginning of class. These questions will count toward your participation grade.

Writing Requirements
There are two writing assignments: 1) Individual Research Paper and 2) Reflection Piece on Socialization

1) Individual Research Paper: You will write a 12-15 page paper (double spaced) on any topic of your choice that deals with issues pertaining to childhood and/or adolescence cross-culturally. You must use a majority of anthropological sources for your paper.  The reference librarian Dick Grefe and I have set up a website to help you get started on your research. The website  http://library.wlu.edu/guides/soc/anth288.asp includes information on childhood topics, and it also has tips on writing your paper, including proper citation and bibliography formats.

The professor will place you in groups according to your topic. Group members will help each other identify resources on the web and in the library, assist one another on paper drafts, and present research results together in class.

In order to guide you along the way, there will be a series of due dates for various parts of your project. I will factor into your final paper grade how well you followed my suggestions for research and writing. Please keep all of these items in a folder, which you will turn in with each next assignment so I can keep track of your progress. Here are the assignments in the order in which they are due (please see the syllabus below for the due dates):
1. a paper topic
2. a bibliography of anthropological sources for your paper. Use appropriate class readings, as well as at least six additional ones that you found through research in the library. And, on a separate piece of paper, provide a statement with your draft thesis (up to two paragraphs).
3. a draft of the paper to give to your partner in class for evaluation (ten to twelve pages double-spaced)
4. revised first page of paper
draft (with original and peer evaluation sheet)
5. in-class presentation
6. final version of paper

2) Reflection Piece on Socialization: In addition to your individual research paper, you will write a short essay (via an anthropological perspective) about socialization practices in your own family, as you experienced them during your childhood years. The professor will hand out directions about this assignment in class.

Specifications for Written Work
Assignment evaluation: I will evaluate your written work on the following criteria: following directions, thoroughness, conventions of grammar and spelling, originality, forethought and execution, and style of presentation. All assignments must be typed unless otherwise noted. FYI: I encourage (and will reward) you to “go out on a limb” with a new idea or challenging statement. Be creative!

Lateness of papers: To get full credit, your paper must be handed in at the end of class on the due date. You must notify me at least one week in advance if request to turn in an assignment late. If I agree to accept the late paper, it will be penalized at the rate of half a grade a day. For instance, a B paper turned in 1 day late becomes a B-. No exceptions without an infirmary excuse or a letter from the Dean. A computer problem does not make a legitimate excuse for lateness.

Please! Keep a hard copy of every assignment: Do not trust your disk, hard drive, or neighbor’s hard drive, or any W&L server as a backup. If I should misplace a paper, I will require you to give me another copy immediately upon request.

Drafts: I am always willing to read and briefly comment upon drafts up to two days before the assignment deadline. (So, if the assignment is due on Wednesday, I will read a draft up to the Monday before until 5:00 p.m.).

There is a one-week limit to making up quizzes.

Format: Grammar, spelling, in-text citation formatting, and style count. If you need guidance, click here to access my website on grammar tips.

Class Participation
The class participation grade includes your thoughtful participation in discussion in class and through your written questions (and quiz grades if applicable).

Attendance
FYI: If you miss more than three classes and/or are late more than three times, a reduction in your final grade is up to my discretion.

Grading
Your grade will be based on the following

Class participation 30%
Reflection Piece 10%
Assignments leading up to the Final paper 10%
Final paper
(taking into account how you improved from peer-review draft
and the comments I make on the revised first page)
30%
Presentation in class 20%

How to Succeed in This Course:
* Complete all the readings on time.
* Be prepared to speak in class and speak often.
* Hand in questions consistently to show how you are thoughtfully completing your reading assignments.
* Take advantage of office hours to consult about drafts of your assignments.
* Turn in your assignments on time.
* Be aware of and follow the attendance policy, writing requirements, and specifications for written work.

Class Schedule (note: The texts listed under each day are to be read for that day.)

Monday 9/8: Introduction to the Class

Wednesday 9/10: Making Modern Babies
1. Meredith Small, Introduction
2. Helena Ragoné (1996), “Chasing the Blood Tie: Surrogate Mothers, Adoptive Mothers and Fathers. American Ethnologist 23(2):352-365.
3. Bob Simpson (2001), “Making ‘Bad’ Deaths ‘Good’: The Kinship Consequences of Posthumous Conception.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 7:1-18.
4. Gay Becker (2002), “Deciding Whether to Tell Children about Donor Insemination: An Unresolved Question in the United States.” In Infertility around the Globe: New Thinking on Childlessness, Gender, and Reproductive Technologies, edited by Marcia C. Inhorn and Frank van Balen. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 119-133.
5. Susan Martha Kahn (2002), “Rabbis and Reproduction: The Uses of New Reproductive Technologies among Ultraorthodox Jews in Israel.” In Infertility around the Globe, pp. 283-297.

Monday 9/15: To Be or Not To Be (Pregnancy and the Fetus) and Bringing Baby into the World
1. Lynn M. Morgan (1998), “Ambiguities Lost: Fashioning the Fetus into a Child in Ecuador and the United States.” In Small Wars, pp. 58-74.
2. Elaine Gale Gerber (2002), “Deconstructing Pregnancy: RU486, Seeing ‘Eggs,’ and the Ambiguity of Very Early Conceptions. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 16(1):92-108.
3. Ellen S. Lazarus (1994), “What Do Women Want?” Issues of Choice, Control and Class in Pregnancy and Childbirth.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 8(1):25-46.
4. Elaine R. Cleeton (2001), “Attitudes and Beliefs about Childbirth among College Students: Results of an Educational Intervention.” Birth 28(3):192-201

Wednesday 9/17: The Invention and Evolution of Childhood
1. Philippe Ariés (1962), Introduction, The Discovery of Childhood, and From Immodesty to Innocence
2. Meredith Small (2001), Chapters 1 and 2
3. UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (handout)

Monday 9/22: Movie in Class: Orphans of Mathare
Due in Class: Topic of Research Paper

Wednesday 9/24: Individual Meetings with Professor
Instead of regular class, you will meet with me during class time with your group partners to talk about your research topic and bibliographic sources.

Monday 9/29: Illness and Mortality
1. Nancy Scheper-Hughes (1985), “Culture, Scarcity, and Maternal Thinking: Maternal Detachment and Infant Survival in a Brazilian Shantytown.” Ethos 13(4):291-317.
2. Maria Tapias (2006), “Emotions and the Intergenerational Embodiment of Social Suffering in Rural Bolivia.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 20(3):339-415.
3. Linda L. Layne (1996), “‘How’s the Baby Doing?: Struggling with Narratives of Progress in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 19(4):624-656.
4. Vinay R. Kamat (2008), "Dying under the Bird's Shadow: Narrative Representations of Degedege and Child Survival among the Zaramo of Tanzania" Medical Anthropological Quarterly 22(1):67-93

Wednesday 10/1: Childcare Manuals from around the World
DeLoache and Gottlieb, Forward, Note to the Reader, Chapter One, and a choice of two other chapters.

Monday 10/6: Socialization and Enculturation
1. Meredith Small, Chapters 6 and 7
2. Catherine Raeff (2006), “Individuals in Relation to Others: Independence and Interdependence in a Kindergarten Classroom.” Ethos 34(4):521-557.
3. Susana De Matos Viegas (2003), “Eating with Your Favourite Mother: Time and Sociality in a Brazilian Amerindian Community.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 9:21-37.
4. Peggy J. Miller et al. (2001), “Narrating Transgressions in Longwood: The Discourses, Meanings, and Paradoxes of an American Socializing Practice.” Ethos 29(2):159-186.

Wednesday 10/8: Debate: The Veracity of Child Abuse
1. James R. Kincaid (1998), “Introduction,” and “Myths of Protection, Acts of Exposure.” In his Erotic Innocence: The Culture of Child Molesting. Durham: Duke University Press.
2. Selections from the media

Monday 10/13: Children at Risk
1. Meredith Small, Chapter 8
2. Sharon Stephens (1995) “The ‘Cultural Fallout’ of Chernobyl Radiation in Norwegian Sami Regions: Implications for Children.” In Children and the Politics of Culture, edited by Sharon Stephens. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Pp. 292-318.
3. Donna M. Goldstein (1998), “Nothing Bad Intended: Child Discipline, Punishment, and Survival in a Shantytown in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.” In Small Wars: The Cultural Politics of Childhood, edited by Nancy Scheper-Hughes and Carolyn Sargent. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 389-415.
4. David M. Rosen (2007), "Child Soldiers, International Humanitarian Law, and the Globalization of Childhood." American Anthropologist 109(2):296-306

Wednesday 10/15: Movie in Class: Of Hopscotch and Little Girls: Stolen Childhoods
Due in class: Draft Bibliography and Thesis Statement

Monday 10/20: Adoption
1. Signe Howell (2003), “Kinning: The Creation of Life Trajectories in Transnational Adoptive Families.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 9:465-484.
2. Laurel Kendall (2005), “Birth Mothers and Imaginary Lives.” In Cultures of Transnational Adoption, edited by Toby Alice Volkman. Durham: Duke University Press. Pp. 162-181.
3. Lisa Cartwright (2005), “Images of ‘Waiting Children’: Spectatorship and Pity in the Representations of the Global Social Orphan in the 1990s.” In Cultures of Transnational Adoption, edited by Toby Alice Volkman. Durham: Duke University Press. Pp. 185-212.
4. Jessica B. Leinaweaver (2007), “On Moving Children: The Social Implications of Andean Child Circulation.” American Ethnologist 34(1):163-180.

Wednesday 10/22: Managing Disabilities
1. Yoram Bilu and Yehuda C. Goodman (1997), “What Does the Soul Say?: Metaphysical Uses of Facilitated Communication in the Jewish Ultraorthodox Community.” Ethos 25(4):375-407.
2. Meira Weiss (1998), “Ethical Reflections: Taking a Walk on the Wild Side.” In Small Wars, pp. 149-162.
3. Abigail A. Kohn (2000), “‘Imperfect Angels’: Narrative ‘Emplotment in the Medical Management of Children with Craniofacial Anomalies.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 14(2):202-223.
4. Elizabeth Keating and Gene Mirus (2003), “Examining Interactions across Language Modalities: Deaf Children and Hearing Peers at School.” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 34(2):115-135.

Monday 10/27:  Film in Class: Game Over: Gender, Race, and Violence in Video Games
Due in Class: Reflection Piece

Wednesday 10/29:  Debate: Media’s Influence on the Youth
1. Anne Allison (2001), “Cyborg Violence: Bursting Borders and Bodies with Queer Machines.” Cultural Anthropology 16(2): 237-265.
2. Sissela Bok (1998), "Part Two: The Impact of Media Violence." In Mayhem: Violence as Public Entertainment. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley.

Monday 11/3: Being a Girl
1. Don E. Merten (2005), “Transitions and ‘Trouble’: Rites of Passage for Suburban Girls. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 36(2):132-148.
2. Ann Miles (2000), “Poor Adolescent Girls and Social Transformations in Cuenca, Ecuador. Ethos 28(1):54-74.
3. Eileen P. Anderson-Fye (2003), “Never Leave Yourself: Ethnopsychology as Mediator of Psychological Globalization among Belizean Schoolgirls.” Ethos 31(1):59-94.
4. Julia Hall (2000), “It Hurts to Be a Girl: Growing Up Poor, White, and Female.” Gender & Society 14(5):630-644.

Wednesday 11/5: Boys Will Be Boys
1. Julia Hall (2000), “Canal Town Boys: Poor White Males and Domestic Violence.” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 31(4):471-485.
2. Adrie S. Kusserow (2005), “Lost Boy.” Anthropology & Humanism 30(1):98-100.
3. Elisabeth Soep (2005), “Making Hard-Core Masculinity: Teenage Boys Playing House.” In Youthscapes: The Popular, the National, the Global, edited by Sunaina Maira and Elizabeth Soep. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Pp. 173-191.
4. Jennifer Roth-Gordon (2007), "Racing and Erasing the Playboy: Slang, Transnational Youth Subculture, and Racial Discourse in Brazil." Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 17(2):246-265.

Monday 11/10: At Risk Youth and Social Justice
1. Justeen Hyde (2000), “Homeless Youth and the Politics of Redevelopment.” PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review 23(1):73-85.
2. Suzanne Scheld (2007), "Youth Cosmopolitanism: Clothing, the City and Globalization in Dakar, Senegal." City & Society 19(2):232-253.
3. Ralph Cintron (2005), “Gangs and Their Walls.” In Youthscapes: The Popular, the National, the Global, edited by Sunaina Maira and Elizabeth Soep. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Pp. 23-42.
4. Lisa W. Loutzenheiser (2002), “Being Seen and Heard: Listening to Young Women in Alternative Schools.” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 33(4):441-464.

Wednesday 11/12: Peer Review in Class

Monday 11/17: Troubles at School: Race and Religion
1. Mary Bucholtz (2001), “The Whiteness of Nerds: Superstandard English and Racial Markedness.” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 11(1):84-100.
2. Mica Pollock (2004), “Race Bending: ‘Mixed’ Youth Practicing Strategic Racialization in California.” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 35(1):30-52.
3. Jasmin Zine (2001), “Muslim Youth in Canadian Schools: Education and the Politics of Religious Identity.” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 32(4):399-423.
Due in Class: revised first page, along with peer review and all other work

Wednesday 11/19: Teen Sexuality
1. Marysol W. Asencio (1999), “Machos and Sluts: Gender, Sexuality, and Violence among a Cohort of Puerto Rican Adolescents.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 13(1):107-126.
2. Jennifer Cole (2004), “Fresh Contact in Tamatave, Madagascar: Sex, Money, and Intergenerational Transformation.” American Ethnologist 31(4):573-588.
3. Catherine Ashcraft (2006), “Ready or Not…? Teen Sexuality and the Troubling Discourse of Readiness.” Anthropology and Education Quarterly 37(4):328-346.
4. Robert Lorway (2008), "Defiant Desire in Namibia: Female Sexual-Gender Transgression and the Making of Political Being." American Ethnologist 35(1):20-33.

No Class 11/24 and 11/26 due to Thanksgiving Break

Monday 12/1 Student Presentations

Wednesday 12/3 Student Presentations

MONDAY 12/10 FINAL PAPER DUE AT NOON IN MY MAILBOX