Fall 2013 -- History 223: International Relations, 1815-1914 -- Mr. Patch
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THE JULY CRISIS OF 1914: TIMELINE & CAST OF CHARACTERS

June 28, 1914: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo by Bosnians affiliated with the “Black Hand.” 

July 5/6: Hoyos Mission to Berlin.  Germany issues a “blank check” to Austria. 

July 7: Cabinet of Austria-Hungary meets in Vienna; everyone but the Hungarian Prime Minister Tisza agrees that Serbia must be punished militarily. 

July 8-22: Lull in diplomatic activity while the wheat harvest proceeds in Austria-Hungary.

July 23: Austrian ultimatum to Serbia includes the demand that Austrian police officials be allowed to arrest Serb government officials on Serb territory. 

July 24/25: Flurry of diplomatic activity; Great Britain urges international diplomatic conference. 

July 28: Austria declares war on Serbia. 

July 29: Austria commences bombardment of the Serb capital, Belgrade. 

July 30: Russia orders general mobilization of its army reserves. 

July 31: Germany delivers 12-hour ultimatum to Russia. 

August 1/2: Schlieffen Plan implemented; Germany declares war on Russia, but its troops enter Luxemburg and threaten Belgium. 

August 3/4: The violation of Belgian neutrality persuades overwhelming majority in British cabinet and Parliament to support war.  Britain declares war on Germany after its ultimatum is ignored.

 

CAST OF CHARACTERS

 

Berchtold= Count Leopold Berchtold, Austrian foreign minister, the top policy-maker in Vienna 

Bethmann Hollweg= Imperial German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg, the top policy-maker in Berlin 

Bienvenue-Martin= French finance minister and deputy premier, highest policy maker in Paris while Premier Viviani and President Poincaré were gone on their mission to St. Petersburg

Buchanan= Sir George Buchanan, British ambassador in St. Petersburg

Cambon= Paul Cambon, French ambassador in London

Conrad= Conrad von Hötzendorf, Chief of Staff of the Austrian Army (Moltke’s opposite number) 

Grey= Sir Edward Grey, British Foreign Secretary, the most important policy-maker in London

Hoyos= Count Alexander von Hoyos, Austrian diplomat who traveled to Berlin in early July 

Jagow= Gottlieb von Jagow, German Secretary of State (Bethmann Hollweg’s foreign minister) 

Lichnowsky= Prince Karl von Lichnowsky, German ambassador in London and notorious Anglophile

Moltke= Helmuth von Moltke, Chief of Staff of the German Army (Conrad’s opposite number) 

Nicky= Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, reigned 1894-1917

Pourtalčs= Count Friedrich von Pourtalčs, German ambassador in St. Petersburg

Sazonov= Russian Foreign Minister Serge Sazonov, the most important policy-maker in St. Petersburg

Schoen= Wilhelm von Schoen, German ambassador in Paris

Szápáry= Austrian ambassador in St. Petersburg 

Szögyény= Austrian ambassador in Berlin

Tschirschky= German ambassador in Vienna

Willy= Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, reigned 1888-1918

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Excerpts from Imanuel Geiss, ed., July 1914: The Outbreak of the First World War.  Selected Documents (New York: Norton, 1974)