Album 2 - Snapshots from other Lands:

Samples From Various Disciplines

This album contains a few snapshots showing applications of XML in a variety of disciplines and enterprises. The list of such applications is huge. Again the purpose here is to indicate the flavor of XML applications and to hint at the potential for many other applications. The album includes snapshots of

Snapshot 1: Marking up Mathematics with MathML

MathML is an XML markup language for mathematical formulas. There are two main components of MathML:

The example we show uses presentation markup. The example shows part of the markup for a two by two matrix with formulas in each component. The markup is done against a MathML DTD.

After the <Math> opening tag, the <mrow> indicates the beginning of a horizontal grouping. The <mi> tag is for identifiers and the <mo> tag is for operators. The &pi is an example of an XML entity whose meaning is defined elsewhere as a special Unicode character. As of this writing, the popular browsers do not support display of MathML. However, the Amaya browser of the W3C group and included on CD accompanying XML Bible does provide some support for MathML, and below we show the document above being displayed with Amaya.

Information on MathML can be found at .

Snapshot 2: Marking up Chemistry with CML

CML is an XML markup language for chemistry documents. One use of CML would be to provide a platform independent format for sharing molecular data. Below we show the markup of the Methanol molecule.

There are browsers to support CML, in particular one called Jumbo. However, for our example, we show the molecule using Jmol, a molecular display package which can accept CML-encoded data as an input format. With program has many features such as zooming in/out and rotating the molecule using the mouse.

Information on CML can be found at .

Snapshot 3: What kind of Hamlet do we see here?

The CD with XML Bible contains the plays of Shakespeare in XML format. As mentioned in XML Bible this would enable the use of XML software to do lots of analysis of the plays. A simple kind of exercise would be to highlight the lines of a particular character for purposes of the actor with the given part. Here is an excerpt from Hamlet:

Snapshot 4: Getting down to business

At this point, it seems that the electronic business world is the leader in the use of XML. Here we have a snapshot of a web page of XBRL (eXtensible Business Language) which is located at

Copyright © XBRL.ORG (AICPA). All Rights Reserved.(See

Snapshot 5: The world comes to you through your own Portal

One problem with large enterprises has been that the information needed by a given employee might be stored in various databases or repositories, in different formats, and on different platforms. One application of XML is to have software that allows the company to easily customize employee "portals" that present the needed information in an appropriate interactive view by using XML as the common format for output and input among the various resources of information. Here is a snapshot from Sequoia Software's web page on their portal software product (

Snapshot 6: But, is there an XML application in ...?

Hopefully the preceding snapshots are sufficient to show the wide range of applications of XML already in existence and to hint at the potential for new areas. The following snapshot is from XML.ORG's web catalog of XML industry applications. The catalog provides links to a wide, wide range of applications. Among the topic areas listed there are Accounting, Architecture, Astronomy, Banking, Bibliographies, Computer Graphics, Customer Relationship Management, Economics, Education, Energy, Food, Geography, Insurance, Legal, Music, News, Publishing, Real Estate, Science, Software, Travel, Voice, and Weather.